دراسة جزيئية عن مرض سرطان الثدي في فلسطين: فحص مسستوى البروتين Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID)
Breast Cancer in Palestine: Expression of the Protein Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID)
منار محمود مصطفى رحال
Manar Mahmoud Mustafa Rahhal
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Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide with an estimated more than one million new cases every year, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women. In Palestine, breast cancer is the most common malignancy in total population and the most common adult female malignancy according to the Cancer Registry centers (CRC) and Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH). Activation induced cystidine deaminase (AID) is a member of APOBEC family of cystidine deaminase which deaminate cytosine in DNA leading to uracil. AID is an essential enzyme normally expressed in B cells. AID enzyme is necessary in diversifying the immune repertoire by two main processes; the first one is Class Switch Recombination (CSR), the second process is Somatic Hypermutation (SHM) which allows the immune system to adapt its response to any threats during the lifetime of an organism. Aberrant expression of AID causes genomic instability and induces mutations in multiple genes by favoring chromosome translocations and point mutations in both B and non-B cells, thereby stimulating cancer formation. AID expression has been reported in numerous cancers of non-B-cell origin, including breast, prostate, stomach, liver, and lung cancer. This study aims to screen the expression of AID protein in tissue sections of breast cancer in patients from Palestine and to determine the correlation between AID protein expression and the clinico-pathological data of these patients. To achieve this, paraffin blocks of 69 breast cancer with their clinico-pathological data were collected retrospectively, between years (2009-2013) from the pathology department of Beit Jala Hospital. The expression levels of AID protein were examined in these cases by Immunohistochemistry (IHC)analysis. Our results showed an aberrant AID expression in 26.1% (18 of 69) of the breast cancer cases. No statistical correlation was observed between AID protein expression and clinicopathological data of the patients such as age, tumor grade and tumor stage (p>0.05). Our study is the first one that examines AID protein expression protein in breast cancer tissue samples in Palestine and in the world. In conclusion, our study showed aberrant expression of AID protein in Palestinian breast cancer patients, and this study will shed the light on the cancer research in Palestine.