اعادة استخدام المياه العادمة المعالجة للاغراض الزراعية في منطقة رام الله بين المعيقات وسبل التعزيز
Potentioal of treated wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes in Ramallah district.
نبراس عبد الكريم حسين الريماوي
Nebras Abdelkareem Hussein Alremawi
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Abstract The scarcity of freshwater in most Palestinian regions is an escalating problem, particularly as the Palestinian populations continue to grow with constant enhancement of their living standards. Water claim is also accelerating due to industrial development and increasing demands of irrigated lands. One of the alternative solutions for water scarcity is the use of treated wastewater in agriculture, which simultaneously avoids the negative impact of wastewater disposal in the environment. The reuse of treated domestic wastewater in agriculture has recently expanded and forced some governments for its inclusion in their overall water budget. This research aims at studying the obstacles facing the wastewater reuse in agriculture in Ramallah agricultural areas from expertise and farmers point of view. The researcher chosen ten from a purposive list of expertise working in different governmental and nongovernmental institutions including universities for interviewing, and distributed a questionnaire on 295 farmer selected randomly from the farmers in Ramallah district.The research was conducted form January 2013 to January 2014. The data obtained from farmers was analyzed using SPSS and those obtained from interviewing the expertise using qualitative analysis. The researcher concluded that the farmers have a knowledge about the treated wastewater but don’t know how it is treated and the health and environmental restrictions about its reuse in agriculture. Farmers were found capable to accept the reuse of treated wastewater in their ح farms if there is a nearby source of treated wastewater. The main obstacles in the reuse of treated wastewater from the view of studied farmers were their weakness in environmental awareness and because they don’t trust the good quality of the treated wastewater. Farmers think that there is no or weak control and follow-up on the quality of treated wastewater from the official bodies. The researcher also concluded that the funding agencies aware to build wastewater treatment plants but they are not aware for the reuse of the treated wastewater in agriculture. The religious factor was the main obstacle facing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture from the farmers point of view. The researcher recommend attending training programs to support the farmers acceptance to reuse treated wastewater in agriculture aiming at strengthen their awareness about the health, economic, and environmental impact of the reuse of treated wastewater, along with clarifying the good quality of treated wastewater to be used for certain trees and crops. It is recommended also to build a successful models for the reuse of treated wastewater to encourage farmers to follow these models in terms of lowering the production cost and obtaining good yield with low price. Among the recommendations are intensifying the control from the official bodies on the quality of effluent of wastewater treatment plants, and educate farmers about the religion opinion in terms of the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture. It is recommended also to provide the farmers in the western areas of Ramallah who don’t have a source of irrigation with zero-cost treated wastewater to encourage them to use treated wastewater as alternative to costly fresh water