البكتيريا المسببة للأمراض على لحم الدجاج النيء في الضفة الغربية، فلسطين: السالمونيلا ، كامبيلوباكتر
Pathogenic Bacteria on Raw Chicken Meat in West-Bank, Palestine: Salmonella Spp., Campylobacter Spp., and Listeria monocytogenes
ابراهيم عامر محمد غنام
Ibrahim Amer Mohammad Ghannam
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Large epidemiological data from many countries confirm that contaminated chicken meat contribute significantly to foodborne diseases worldwide. Thus, reduction of contamination of raw chicken meat would have a large impact in reducing incidence of these foodborne diseases. Therefore, our study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the major human illnesses causing bacteria, particularly, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria monocytogenes in the retail chicken meat in West Bank, Palestine. To achieve this goal, one hundred and two random chicken meat samples were collected from different retail markets and governorates in the West Bank, Palestine. They were studied for total aerobic bacterial content, and for the presence of human pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria monocytogenes using conventional culturing and biochemical methods. Our results indicate that: (6/102) 5.9% of the samples contain Listeria monocytogenes, (21/102) 20.6% contain Salmonella Spp. and (37/102) 36.27% contain Campylobacter Spp. Samples containing Campylobacter Spp were further subdivided to Campylobacter coli which was present in (21/102) 20.59%, Campylobacter jejuni which was present in (11/102) 10.78%, and Campylobacter lari which was present in (5/102) 4.90 % of the total samples. Comparing our results to similar studies done on raw chicken meat in other countries, the prevalence of these pathogens in West Bank, Palestine lies within the range. For example: the highest prevalence of Salmonella (22/40) 55% is in Spain and the lowest (3/205) 1.5% is in north Ireland, the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (393/448) 91.8% is in Turkey and the lowest (32/99) 32.3% is in South Africa, and the highest prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes (17/46) 37% is in Japan and the lowest 3/66 (4.5%) is in Brazil. These variations in isolation rates between countries depend on the country where the study was carried out, the chicken breeding environment and methods, processing and marketing procedures, the sampling plan and the sensitivity of the methodology used in the study. Statistical correlation analysis was done to see if there is any significant relationship between the presence of these pathogens and the total aerobic plate count, carcass gross weight, governorate from which the sample was taken, slaughtering time, and chicken meat market type. The results of this analysis showed that only the prevalence of Salmonella significantly differ between those samples bought from poultry market or street side poultry market, while none of the other studied pathogens is significantly associated with the market type. Also none of the other studied factors is significantly associated with the presence of these three pathogens. In contrast significant relationship (P<0.001) was found between the total aerobic plate count, the slaughtering time, marketing type, and governorate of sample origin. Therefore, based on these results, setting up a cost-effective pathogens monitoring and surveillance systems, augmented by good agricultural and hygienic practices and well-designed longitudinal research activities on the whole chicken meat production chain, are strongly recommended.