Biomedical Sciences and Public Health

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    Characterizing Goal-Directed Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorde
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Hrizat, Alaa S. ; Mustafa, Mousa S. ; Abuhilal, Anfal A. ; Herzallah, Mohammad M. ; Natsheh, Joman Y.
    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Children with ADHD show impaired motivational behavior. For example, they tend to select small, immediate over large, delayed rewards. They might be unable to predict the consequences of their actions showing a deficit in action-control strategies. Goals and habits are the two behavioral mechanisms that control actions. Balancing these two behaviors leads to normal action-control. In previous studies, we found that rat models of ADHD demonstrated over-reliance on habits and poor goal-directed actions. This deficit was restored by administering methylphenidate (the most commonly used psychostimulant in ADHD treatment), dopamine D2 receptor agonist or dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. Further, in another pilot study, we found that children with ADHD are less reliant on goal-directed behavior compared to healthy children. In this study, we examined action-control patterns in children with ADHD on- and off- methylphenidate. We hypothesize that on-methylphenidate patients will show different patterns of action-control compared to off-methylphenidate patients. We tested 7 off-medication and 7 on-medication, 6-10 years old children with ADHD, and 13 healthy controls. Participants were 6-10 years old and were group matched for age and sex. We tested patterns of action-control using a computer-based task of the outcome devaluation paradigm that consists of three phases; a training phase, a devaluation phase and a choice test. Children with ADHD were successful at acquiring action-outcome associations as well as showing higher tendency on goal-directed responses. However, throughout the task, on- methylphenidate children showed (1) lower number of errors, (2) higher reaction times and (3) no difference in action-control responses (goals vs. habits). These results indicate that methylphenidate was beneficial in modulating symptoms of ADHD by reducing the number of errors during learning and increasing children’s response times; but it was not effective in improving children’s cognitive profile, reflected by similar action-control patterns in both on and off-medication states.
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    Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Onion Peels Extract and Fortification of White Wheat Flour to Prevent Health Hazard
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-09-10) Karaki, Hadeel ; Maswadeh, Iman ; Abu Khalaf, Eman ; Awawdeh, Ihsan ; Wadaah, Salam ; Hamdan, May
    The oxidation eliminates health benefits of edible oil and cause many human hazards, which can be reduced by using natural antioxidant phenolic extracts. Yellow onion peel has been reported to contain the phenols of different structures. When olive oil is fortified by antioxidant’s extract from onion peels, it can decrease oxidation. This study aims to delay oxidation in virgin olive oil. The samples of onion peels and olive oil were collected and stored in a good condition until use. The onion peels were washed, dried and ground samples were introduced into the 80% aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) with a ratio of 1:30 (sample: solvent) for 30 minutes along with ultrasonic shaking. The extracts were separated from the residues by filtering through filter paper. The combined extracts were concentrated and freed of solvent under vacuum at 45oC, using rotary evaporator. The dried crude concentrated extracts were stored in a refrigerator (-4 ◦C) until needed The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of onion peels extract will estimate it. The onion peel extracts will be added in three concentrations (300, 600 & 900 ppm) to the virgin olive oil. Treated and untreated (control) oil samples will be stored in the dark at ambient temperature (approx. 25C and 40C) for 80 days. The samples will be analyzed before and after the extract is added with acid value, Peroxidevalue, Lodinevalue, Anisidinevalue, K232 and k270. The yellow onion skin extracts have antimicrobial activity in relation to E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus as the method will determine. The extract showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; it was effective in preventing formation of hazardous compounds, and therefore increased shelf life of oils.
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    Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Onion Peels Extract and Fortification of White Wheat Flour to Prevent Health Hazard
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Karaki, Hadeel ; Maswadeh, Iman ; Abu Khalaf, Eman ; Awawdeh, Ihsan
    The oxidation eliminates health benefits of edible oil and cause many human hazards, which can be reduced by using natural antioxidant phenolic extracts. Yellow onion peel has been reported to contain the phenols of different structures. When olive oil is fortified by antioxidant’s extract from onion peels, it can decrease oxidation. This study aims to delay oxidation in virgin olive oil. The samples of onion peels and olive oil were collected and stored in a good condition until use. The onion peels were washed, dried and ground samples were introduced into the 80% aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) with a ratio of 1:30 (sample: solvent) for 30 minutes along with ultrasonic shaking. The extracts were separated from the residues by filtering through filter paper. The combined extracts were concentrated and freed of solvent under vacuum at 45oC, using rotary evaporator. The dried crude concentrated extracts were stored in a refrigerator (-4 ◦C) until needed The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of onion peels extract will estimate it. The onion peel extracts will be added in three concentrations (300, 600 & 900 ppm) to the virgin olive oil. Treated and untreated (control) oil samples will be stored in the dark at ambient temperature (approx. 25C and 40C) for 80 days. The samples will be analyzed before and after the extract is added with acid value, Peroxidevalue, Lodinevalue, Anisidinevalue, K232 and k270. The yellow onion skin extracts have antimicrobial activity in relation to E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus as the method will determine. The extract showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; it was effective in preventing formation of hazardous compounds, and therefore increased shelf life of oils.
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    Bacterial Contamination on Used Toothbrushes
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Saymeh, Sara
    My senior project is about the bacterial contamination of used toothbrushes aims to evaluate and identify the bacterial contamination on daily used toothbrushes. I distributed 50 toothbrushes among students living in dorms. They signed a consent form, and I asked them a questionnaire. By the 1st of March, I collected, analyzed and figured out the types of bacteria found on the distributed toothbrushes. Then I connected my results with the questionnaire they answered.
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    Body Mass Index and Lifestyle Habits as Predictors of Health in Palestinian Adults: A cross-Sectional Study
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Warasneh, Beesan
    prevalence of obesity has led to rising numbers of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and other leading conditions. Poor lifestyle, in the form of poor diet and lack of proper sleep and exercise can be attributed to comorbidity and decrease in overall health. Little is known about eating habits, sleeping habits, and the prevalence of obesity in Palestinian adults. A team of trained medical-students conducted a cross-sectional study of Palestinian adults aged between 18 and 60 years old. Stratified random sample of 2500 adults is selected based on governorates, and an interview-aided questionnaire is used for data collection in addition to measures of weight, height, and waist circumference. 2106 Palestinian adults have been selected with a participation rate of 83%. Preliminary results show that the sample is 43.6% male, 56.4% female with a mean age of 33.2 years (SD=12.8). Mean calculated BMI of the sample was 26.5 (SD=5.6) with a mean height of 1.67 m (SD=0.09). Participant distribution according to living area was 39% urban, 53.7% rural, and 7.3% living in refugee camps. The majority of the sample was married (55.3%) or single (42.2%) with the rest being either divorced or widowed. 901 (42.8%) participants had at least 1 child with a mean of 4.56 (SD=2.58) children per participant. 52.3% of the sample had poor sleeping habits, 74.3% had poor eating habits, and 32.5% of the overall sample were smokers. Hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were the most common illnesses reported with rates of 7.5%, 5.1%, and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion: It was found that Palestinians exhibit poor eating and sleeping habits and have a large percentage of smokers. Disease prevalence was found to agree with international studies in that hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were found to be the most common diseases. In light of this, we believe that the Palestinian population is in dire need of educational programmes to better improve their lifestyle in such a way that reflects on their habits and disease prevalence.