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- ItemAbjection in Shelley’s Frankenstein(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Irayeh, MadleenThis paper analyzes Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein through Julia Kristeva’s theory of abjection. The main argument is that Victor Frankenstein and his creature experience and reflect abjection, which Kristeva defines as the breakdown of meanings when humans encounter fear or phobias. These fears and phobias are a response to what is avoided or not acceptable in the symbolic order (language, law, rules). Moreover, Victor’s first encounter with abject can be seen in his early childhood when he is separated from his mother. I will show that these fears can be seen in Victor’s phobia of the corpses of Clerval, Elizabeth and his mother as well as the creature’s self-loathing. First, the corpse elicits abjection through evoking the mortality of human beings. Upon beholding the corpses of his family, Victor suffers delirium, visual hallucinations, nightmares and fever all of which represent the corpse as the “utmost of abjection” (Kristeva 4). Second, the creature experiences abjection which can be seen in his thorough awareness of his deformity and defilement. The creature tries in vain to be accepted in the symbolic order. However, he realizes that he is the abject or the source of fear from which humans flee.
- ItemThe Implication of Supremacy of Superpowers over International Law and Human Rights Treaties(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Al Balawi, TaqwaThe imbalance in the international balance of power and the unipolar world has affected the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and has affected the application of international law with respect to the issue of settlement. The mechanisms of applying international law are no longer viable in exchange for the dominance of some states. The United States of America, as a super power in the United Nations (UN) bodies, affects all the resolutions against Israeli settlements. This is a result of the strong relationship between America and Israel. Therefore, America uses its power to achieve Israel’s interests even if this violates the international laws. Although the establishment of the settlements is contrary to the international laws (the Hague Convention, the Geneva Accord, the Rome statues), there is ongoing expansion of settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. This study focused on how the role of United States of America, as a super power in the (UN) bodies, affects all the resolutions against Israeli settlements, depending on the American Israeli relationship. This relationship affects other United States interests in the Middle East. It sheds light on the nature of this relationship and explains the interference of mutual interest for both countries. Although there are no mechanisms for applying international laws, the peaceful popular resistance and the mobilization of public opinion and international public opinion are the best way to demand the rights of Palestinians. This forms a great support for the Palestinian cause, through pressure on states and UN bodies to take serious measures and create a more suitable environment for peace. Therefore, the continuation of work in international forums and bringing more decisions in favor of the Palestinian cause, even if not implemented, will constitute a pressure on countries and America to take action on Palestinian issues and establish an independent state on the 1967 borders, and work to end the Israeli settlement.
- ItemThe Language of Advertising in Billboards across Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Dwiat, Malak; Ballout, Irene; Handal, KatrinBusinesses around the world communicate and advertise for their products through different modes, such as billboards. While there is research on the language of advertising in the Arab world (Al-Olayan& Karande 2000; El-daly 2011; Kalliny& Gentry 2007), there is no research on the language of advertising or more specific advertising using billboards in Palestine. This paper analyzed the language of advertising in billboards throughout various Palestinian regions. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: What languages or language varieties are used on billboards in various areas of Palestine? How do these billboards seek to persuade consumers in Palestine to buy products or services? Thirty-two distinct billboards across Palestine were analyzed according to Bhatia’s (1992) and Piller’s (2003) frameworks (as cited in Baumgardner& Brown’s, 2012) for analyzing English in magazine advertising using tools from sociolinguistics, linguistics, and multimodal discourse analysis. The results showed that Arabic was used mostly on the billboards for both international/multinational and local companies. International/multinational companies used Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), while local companies used Palestinian Arabic. Applying Schrank’s manipulation of language techniques (as cited by Prelipceanu, 2013) on the data revealed that Palestinian advertisers tended to use the same techniques as other advertisers around the world to persuade consumers to buy products or services. Furthermore, certain dimensions of the Palestinian culture were depicted on the billboards. The study revealed that Palestine is not as receptive to foreignism as expected, and that the billboards were not inclusive of the entire Palestinian culture. This study emphasizes the need to conduct a future research on a larger number of billboards in different places in Palestine and to study language use in other forms of advertising in Palestine as well.
- ItemThe Monstrosity of the Destruction of the Females in Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Awadallah, WiamThis research examines the real monstrosity in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. My argument is that the true monstrosity in the novel is the destruction of the females that results, as Julia Kristeva says in her theory of abjection, from fear and disgust of women’s bodies. I will use major pieces of textual evidence from the novel and analyze them through Kristeva’s idea of abjection to show how monstrosity is constructed in the novel. First, I show that monstrosity is evident, as Kristeva says, in the fragility of law. This can be seen in how Victor Frankenstein is exonerated of his crimes that led to the destruction of Justine and the female monster because of the unfair and biased judicial institutions. In contrast, Justine is accused and punished for a crime that she did not commit. Second, monstrosity is also evident in Victor’s denial of the significance of the maternal. This can be seen in his creation of the female monster without the need of a woman, his comparison between his creation and females’ labor, and the symbolic destruction of the female monster’s placenta. The latter in turn indicates that he wants to prove that the mother’s absence is not a big deal.
- ItemThe New Voice of Resistance in Palestinian Hip-Hop: DAM and the Representation of Arab Women(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Najarian, Layan; Ameer, LucianaThis study aimed to find the effect of the specific language varieties used by the Palestinian hip-hop group DAM on the ways that feminist themes of honor killing, the objectifying of women, and the categorizing and marginalizing of Arab women are represented in songs. The research techniques involved inspecting and finding the feminist themes presented in five songs performed by DAM as well as analyzing the effect of language use on those themes. Among the five is one unreleased song that we heard in a concert and obtained permission to include it in our study. In addition, the researchers applied Tyson’s (2006) discussion of feminism to examine the themes of the songs. The researchers found that DAM uses multiple languages and language varieties including the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Colloquial Arabic (CA), and Hebrew as well as words borrowed from the English and Hebrew languages. DAM exploits these languages to communicate cultural issues and social critique in subtle ways to a wide audience, simultaneously local and international. For example, their use of particular MSA words heightens the seriousness of their topics while their use of CA words, marked as very local and very informal, reminds Palestinian listeners that the problems being discussed are part of their national culture, a part that Palestinians can change. Our goal in choosing this topic was to examine the representation of Arab women through the lens of Palestinian hip hop written and performed mainly by feminist Arab men although, importantly, female performers are involved as well.
- ItemPerformance Poetry and the Representation of Women and Palestine(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Nassar, Jwana; Alawy, WisamPerformance poetry has always been a way to perform and convey an emotionally charged message to a broad audience. This study aimed to examine performed poems written in English by Palestinian poets some of whom live outside Palestine that examined the Palestinian cause as a major issue that should not be ignored. Our research showed that there are studies on the analysis of poems written and performed in other languages such as Indonesian poetry (Cole, 2010), English/ Spanish code-switched poetry (Napiorski, 2011), and Classical Arabic poetry (Al-Zubaidy, 2014). However, there is no research on Palestinian poetry written in English, and particularly conducted in Palestine. Therefore, we decided to focus our attention on the works of Palestinians that are written and performed in English and aim to deliver an important message about the representation of women in Palestinian culture, cause, and resistance. Our analysis focused on one poem, “Love Letters from Palestine” (Dajani, 2014), though we also examined four other poems to provide support for our claims: “The Palestine I know” (Ziadah, 2016), “Shades of anger” (Ziadah, 2011), “Gaza” (Hammad, 2014), and “Nakba” (Kanazi, 2013). All these poems focused on women in Palestine, often representing Palestine as a woman, along with the Palestinian culture and resistance. In these poems, we noted five recurring themes linking the situation of Palestinian women and the occupation: arranged marriage, anger about the past, culture, anger about the present, and hope for the future. “Love Letters from Palestine” considered an additional, especially interesting, theme, “scorned love” as it drew a parallel between a woman whose husband had never loved her and the complex links between Israel and Palestinians.
- ItemSexual, Religious and Cultural Taboos Subtitled in American TV Shows and Movies(Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2019-09-10) Abu Sirrieh, Nadeen; Okkeh, Samiha; Abu Hilal, YoumnaThis study was conducted to examine subtitling into Arabic in American movies and TV shows that deal with sexual, religious and cultural taboos. This paper analyzed three episodes from the American TV show, Friends, and two episodes from animation series, The Simpsons, and three American movies, Troy, Sierra Burgess is a Loser, and The Wolf of Wall Street, to examine these issues. The analysis process was done by watching these episodes and movies, collecting the English words that have discrepancy with the Arabic subtitles, transcribing them with a short description of the relevant scenes in which they occurred, and finally considering the relationship between the original English words and the Arabic subtitles by focusing on the choice of words used in the subtitle. The study demonstrated that subtitlers generally present qualified subtitles, but when it comes to sexual, religious and vulgar contents, they tend to either euphemize or omit this content from the subtitle line. Through examining these contents, the study also showed that the subtitlers, by honoring the cultural ideologies that are found in most of the Arab societies in their subtitles, presented a discrepancy between the ideologies of the Arab culture and the ideologies of the American culture. The first was presented as a standard and idealized one, while the other was presented in any ways depraved.