التقية في الدعوة الإسلامية
التقية في الدعوة الإسلامية Taqiya (dissimulation)
وائل عاصم سالم الدويك
Wael Asem Salem Dwaik
This study is aimed at educating the practitioners of Dawa (invitation to Islam) in particular and the entire Sunni Muslim community in general about the essence of the research theme . Taqiya or dissimulation is defined as being forced under exceptional circumstances to conceal certain information, e.g. regarding one’s beliefs, for safety purposes. Another definition is: disguising one’s beliefs, convictions, ideas, feelings, opinions, and/or strategies at a time of imminent danger, whether now or later in time to save oneself from physical and/or mental injury. Taqiya is a license granted to Muslims who may find themselves facing imminent danger. In this case, it is a behavioral pattern intended to avoid or avert a looming physical or other harm . The study explains elaborately the various terminologies pertaining to Taqiya. It also illustrates taqiya’s theological legitimacy in light of the Holy Quran and the Traditions of the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH). The study discusses and analyzes the circumstances justifying the practice of Taqiya, how it should be practiced, when it is abused and misused, when it is inadmissible and prohibited. In so doing I discussed pertinent terms such as compulsion, using tacit or implicit language, prevarication, allegory ،appeasement, unctuousness, sycophancy, hypocrisy, courtesy, and wit. I also gave several examples of Taqiya, corroborating them with ample evidence from the Quran and the Traditions of the Prophet (PBUH). Furthermore, I discussed the concept of Taqiya in both Shiite and Sunni jurisprudence. The study combines the descriptive and analytical methodologies, relying on the views of Muslim scholars as well as other critical views based on other literature. The conclusions of the study include the following : First, the practice of Taqiya within proscribed limits is legitimate in light of the Sharia or Islamic Law. Second, Taqiya represents the exception not the norm and its use is highly restricted. Hence it should be viewed as a proscribed license that one can resort to in extreme circumstances while carefully taking into account changes in the situation at hand with regard to time and place as well as people involved. Taqiya is also individualistic, not collective in nature and is generally undesired and its rationale ends with the disappearance of its causes and justifications . Third, Taqiya is warranted only when dealing with disbelieves who pose a reasonable physical or other danger to a Muslim, such as harming him or her because of their belief system. Hence it can’t be practiced in dealing with Muslims . Fourth, Taqiya doesn’t encompass every aspect of life .There can be no Taqiya in cases of murder, adultery, fornication and similar offences. Similarly, Taqiya can’t be practiced by prophets and messengers of God since expressions to that effect might be misconstrued as established rules of the Sharia. Fifth, Taqiya has many aspects ، manifestations, synonyms, conditions and restrictions that can’t be compromised. Conclusion :the Islamic Umma (Community) shall not prosper unless it clings to the Book of God and Sunna (Way) of the Prophet(PBUH). As to the Shiite concept of Taqiya, I’ve found out that it is highly exaggerated and differs substantially, if not drastically, from the way Sunni Muslims understand Taqiya. The Shiites treat Taqiya as a sort of modus operandi, or general pattern of behavior. It is used for the pettiest of aims, such as expediting gains and benefits, not avoid danger and calamity . The main recommendation of the study is that more research ought to be done in this regard.
الدراسات الاسلامية المعاصرة, Contemporary Islamic Studies