دور قناة الجزيرة في مواجهة الدعاية السياسية الموجهة ضد قطر في الأزمة الخليجية (2017–2018)
رنا فتحي شعبان الشرافي
Rana Fathi Shaaban Al Shrafy
This study discusses the role of Al-Jazeera Channel in repelling political propaganda directed against Qatar during the Gulf crisis (2017-2018), the role of media in political crises that is based on the methods of propaganda and anti-propaganda in crises as well as showing to what extent the political regimes rely on media in promoting their propaganda. The study also contains four chapters. The first chapter shows the overall context of the study where the second chapter shows the definition of the political propaganda and antipropaganda concepts as well as their relationship with the political systems and their methods used by media. The third chapter involves details about Al-Jazeera channel with its news, programs, editorial policy and its styles of publicity, whereas the fourth chapter addresses the Gulf crisis from its onset roots to the eruption of the crisis (2017-2018) refuting the propaganda methods used by both Al-Jazeera channel and the besieging/boycotting countries, severing ties with Qatar, during the crisis. The study utilizes several research methods, including the historical approach that demonstrates the roots up to the ending of the relations. In addition, it uses the descriptive analytical approach used by the researcher to understand the media practices during the crisis, and also, the qualitative approach helping in understanding the phenomenon in an extrapolated way. The comparative approach demonstrates the difference between the Al- Jazeera channel and the besieging/boycotting countries' media in dealing with the crisis news and the methods used in this regard. Finally, it uses the deductive approach that helps the researcher to understand the results she has devised during the research. Consequently, the study utilizes the necessary approaches to reach a thorough systematic analysis that achieves the objectives of the study. The results of the study: 1- Al-Jazeera channel played an essential role in refuting the propaganda directed against Qatar by practicing both the political propaganda and anti-propaganda methods in solving the news crisis of the Gulf Countries (2017/2018). 2- The political propaganda of Al-Jazeera channel distinguished from the direct political propaganda which was practiced by the media of the boycotting countries against Qatar by using undirect techniques that made its propaganda more credible and effective. 3- Political propaganda is closely linked to political regimes which depend on the media in transferring their propaganda to the public to achieve their specific targets within or outside the country. 4- Media Methods played an essential role in the outbreak of the political Gulf crisis and its development, and they were as a foreign political representative for their countries far away from spreading the news as the main objective of media. ط The study recommendations: 1- Al Jazeera channel must be more aware of in solving the news of the Gulf crisis (2017/2018), and it must avoid using political methods of anti-propaganda and directed-propaganda even if it was undirect in order not to be politically biased to Qatar. 2- Media Methods of boycotting countries must avoid direct propaganda and media disinformation since they lose their credibility. They also enhance the media of Al- Jazeera channel, which depends on shreds of evidence, proofs and witnesses supporting its political orientation and making its propaganda more credible and accepted for the public. 3- Political regimes must pay more attention to the impact of media on their audiences within or outside their countries and what propaganda implications they carry in which they may serve their interests or stand against the political regimes. 4- The Gulf media must have social responsibilities while covering the crisis news (2017/2018), understand the real impact of its propaganda, anti-propaganda and directed-propaganda, in the process of the crisis and its development.