Molecular epidemiology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jericho and its vicinity in Palestine from 1994 to 2015

dc.contributor.authorAl-Jawabreh, A.
dc.contributor.authorDumaidi, K.
dc.contributor.authorEreqat, S.
dc.contributor.authorAl-Jawabreh, H.
dc.contributor.authorNasereddin, A.
dc.contributor.authorAzmi, K.
dc.contributor.authorBarghuthy, F.
dc.contributor.authorSawalha, S.
dc.contributor.authorSalah, I.
dc.contributor.authorAbdeen, Z.
dc.description.abstractCutaneous leishmaniases (CL) are vector-borne parasitic diseases endemic inmany countries of the Middle East including Palestine. Between 1994 and 2015, 2160 clinically suspected human cases of CL from the Jericho District were examined. Stained skin tissue smears and aspirates were checked by microscopy and cultured for promastigotes, respectively. For leishmanial species identification, amplification products from a PCR-ITS1 followed by RFLP analysis using Hae III. Data were analyzed using Epi Info free-software. The overall infection rate was 41.4% (895/2160), 56.3% (504/895) of the cases were male, 43.7% (391/895) female, 60.5% (514/849) children under age 14, 41.3% (259/627) of the cases were caused by Leishmania major and 57.3% (359/627) by Leishmania tropica. The case numbers peaked in 1995, 2001, 2004, and 2012. Statistically-significant clusters of cases caused by L. major were restricted to the Jericho District; those caused by L. tropica were from the districts of Jericho, Bethlehem, Nablus and Tubas. CL is seasonal and trails the sand fly season. Distribution of cases was parabolicwith fewest in July. Themonthly total number of cases of CL and just those caused by L.major correlated significantly with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, evaporation, wind speed and sunshine (P b 0.05, r2= 0.7–0.9 and P b 0.05, r2=0.5–0.8, respectively). Cases caused by L. tropica, significantly, had a single lesion compared to cases caused by L. major (P=0.0001), which, significantly, had multiple lesions (P=0.0001). This and previous studies showed that CL is present in all Palestinian districts. The surveillance of CL has increased public awareness and molecular biologicalmethodology for leishmanial species identification is an essential addition to classical diagnosis. The overall results are discussed, correlated to climatic and environmental changes and largescale human activities.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work received financial support from grants of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Scho 448/6-1-3, Scho 448/8-1, Scho 448/8-2 that extended from 1998 until 2015. It also received support fromEurNegVeg COST Action TD1303 (Cost 037/13). At one time during the study WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO), Division of Communicable Diseases (DCD) and the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR): the EMRO/DCD/TDR Small Grants Scheme for Operational Research in Tropical and Communicable Diseases financially supported this work. We thank Dr. L. F. Schnur for going over our manuscript.en_US
dc.subjectCutaneous leishmaniasisen_US
dc.subjectL. tropicaen_US
dc.subjectL. majoren_US
dc.titleMolecular epidemiology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jericho and its vicinity in Palestine from 1994 to 2015en_US
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
1.46 MB
Adobe Portable Document Format
License bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
1.71 KB
Item-specific license agreed upon to submission