Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Resilience among Palestinian Adolescents in the Gaza Strip
Issa Mahmoud Mohammad Al ibwaini
عيسى محمود العبويني
This study aimed to investigate posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience among adolescents in the Gaza Strip, especially after 51 day war on Gaza Strip. Descriptive analytic, cross sectional design was used. By using four applied tools as follow: socio-demographic characteristic questionnaire, Gaza traumatic events checklist, PTSD Scale for DSM-IV, and resilience scale for adolescents. The sample consisted of 408 students (209 boys and 199 girls) from the five governorates of Gaza Strip aged from 13-18 years old with mean age=15.49. The result showed that the total mean of traumatic experiences was 10.91 (sever experiences), and there was relationship between trauma and sex, boys statistically significantly reported severe traumatic events than girls. The result showed that the mean total scores of PTSD was 29.52, mean re-experiencing symptoms was 9.95, mean avoidance was 10.37, and mean arousal was 9.21. The results showed that 20.1% of adolescents showed no PTSD, 31.1% showed at least one criteria of PTSD (B or C or D), 29.7% showed partial PTSD, and 19.1% of adolescents showed full criteria of PTSD. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in total PTSD, avoidance, and arousal symptoms according to place of residence in favor of adolescents from middle area. The study demonstrated that the mean of total resilience was 82.15, Personal skills 14.01, peer component 5.68, social skills 10.75, physical relationship with caregiver 5.19, psychological relationship with caregiver 15.51, spiritual beliefs 9.36, culture 14.87, and educational items 6.79. The results showed that boys expressed more social skills factors than girls, with no statistically significant differences in other factors according to sex. The results showed statistically significant differences in personal skills, peer component, and psychological relationship with caregiver scores according to place of residence in favor of adolescents from North Gaza. The results showed statistically significant differences in personal skills according to monthly income in favor of adolescents from families with monthly income from 2001 to 3000 NIS, and showed statistically significant differences in social skills in favor of adolescents from families with monthly income more than 3000 NIS. The results showed statistically significant differences in peer component, social skills according to number of siblings in favor of adolescents had 4 and less siblings, and showed statistically significant differences in psychological relationship with caregiver in favor of adolescents had 5 to 7 siblings. The results showed that there was significant correlation between total traumatic events reported by adolescents and total PTSD (r = 0.418), re-experiencing (r = 0.399), avoidance (r = 0.366), and arousal (r = 0.315). The results showed that total number of experienced traumatic events was negatively associated with personal skills (r = - 0.119) and peer component (r = - 0.099). While PTSD was negatively associated with total resilience (r = - 0.122), personal skills (r = - 0.136), social skills (r = - 0.125) and psychological relationship with caregiver (r = -0.134).