Emergency repair of traumatic avulsion of the right main stem bronchus using biliary stent in a 6-year-Old girl: A case report

Salem M. Tos
Afnan W.M. Jobran
Narmeen Giacaman
Mohammad G. Ibdah
Anas Alasafrah
Isam Shammas
Hazem Al Ashhab
Yousef Abu Asbeh
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Introduction: Pediatric thoracic trauma is a rare condition, but results in high levels of morbidity and mortality. These injuries are often more devastating in the pediatric population due to differences in children’s anatomy and physiology relative to adult patients. Tracheobronchial injuries secondary to blunt trauma are difficult to diagnose compared to penetrating trauma. So, a high index of suspicion is of utmost importance. Case presentation: We report a case of a 6-year-old girl who experienced complete avulsion of the right main bronchus. The patient presented with extensive emphysema and severe respiratory distress with bilateral tension pneumothorax. Endotracheal intubation and two thoracostomy tubes were applied. Pneumothorax and a massive air leak persisted on the right side. After thoracotomy, right main bronchus avulsion was present and then repaired by end-to-end anastomosis and muscle flap. minimal air leaks from right chest tubes and partially expanding right lung on chest X-ray are seen after that. So, reinforcement by biliary (instead of bronchial) stent was performed because unavailability of bronchial stent with the desired size at that time. Discussion: Traumatic tracheobronchial damage occurs in just 0.05–3% of all pediatric thoracic traumas. It’s fatal condition especially in first hour. With proper recognition and management of these injuries, there is an associated improved long-term outcome. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the initial evaluation, current management practices, and future directions in pediatric thoracic trauma. Conclusion: Biliary stent placement could be a reasonable treatment option for racheobronchial damage.