المواقف الاسرائيلية من قضية القدس 1967-2000
سمر رزق حمتو
Samar Rizq Hamto
This study deals with the Israeli stances towards the issue of Jerusalem (1967-2000 ), in which the various leading Israeli stances towards this issue during the period from 1967 to 2000 , the main contradictions regarding this vital significant issue and the repercussions of these contrasts, and the different stances of parties , leaders, and thinkers on the future of solving the Palestinian cause, and ending the Arab- Israeli conflict, and the future of supremacy over this holy city, have been examined. The study aims to contribute in setting a view with respect to the Israeli stances towards the issue of Jerusalem, and in refuting the Israeli claims of the legality of their control over the city, procedures of its judaization, and changing its Arab Islamic character.This study examines also the situation of the holy city, the Israeli stances towards the issue of Jerusalem during the period of the study to change the legal , demographic, and cultural character of the city, and the egotiations carried out between Arab and Palestinian sides. This study comes within the descriptive researches, that aim to depict, analyze, and evaluate a specific attitude in order to get an accurate and adequate information about it.In the framework of this study, the researcher has combined between the descriptive and the analytical method to give a comprehensive analytical feature to incidents and stances. Also, it was relied on the historical method to set the context of events and examine the defects, modes , and results. The researcher has divided this study into six chapters including the background of the study, and the review of relevant references and studies and conclusions. The researcher has reached several results the most important of which is that the Israeli stances towards Jerusalem were contradictory, and Jerusalem has never gained any interest by Israel's leaders before and during the war in 1948; besides, the occupation of the eastern part of the city of Jerusalem, or its annexation to Israel was not brought up in the thought of Israel's leaders until the first day of the war in June 1967. In addition, these results revealed that Jerusalem has not received any interest by the major parties in Israel during the period from 1948 - 1967. The study points out that the governments of Israel , and the Zionist movement before it have not sought earnestly before 1967 to annex east Jerusalem. Moreover, the Jewish sovereignty issue over the Temple Mount has never been presented from the political angle, and after 1967 the myth of the indivisible Jerusalem started " the united and eternal capital of Israel " and this principle has been infused in minds. The results of this study showed that the successive Israeli governments since 1967 up to this day have continued to implement its policies, that aim to obliterate the Arab character of the holy city, and to establish its private schemes pertaining to its judaization and distortion of its milestones. The results of the study suggested that Jerusalem faces the most dangerous and biggest Judaization and falsification process of history within a programmed policy targeting all Islamic and Christian sanctities there, and especially in the old city ( East Jerusalem ). The results of the study illustrated the illegality of the Israeli decision to annex Jerusalem or any of its parts to the state of Israel under the United Nations resolutions and international conventions. The study expounded also that Israel has avoided using the term annexation, and it began to judaize the city gradually. The results showed that addressing the issue of Jerusalem has not yet lived up to the level of magnitude of this issue, and its importance in the future of the conflict in the Arab region, considering that it is a central issue , and a major cause for the ongoing conflict in the middle east. Moreover, the study results demonstrated the difference of stances of some Israeli parties' leaders, and Jewish intellectuals on the issue of Jerusalem, its future, and mechanisms to reach solutions with the Palestinians in this respect.Furthermore, the results of the study showed that there was an agreement among all the Israeli parties that Jerusalem is the united and eternal capital of the state Israel, and their agreement not to subject the city to any settlement negotiations or attempts to divide.Therefore, this complicates the negotiation on Jerusalem, and affirms the ineffectiveness of conducting settlement talks on the Palestinian issue with Israel; as it will revolve in a vicious circle.Also, the results noted that there is a grievous danger jeopardizing Jerusalem due to an agreement among parties , governments, bodies , and institutions of the Israeli state, and its settlers, and the international Zionist organizations, on judaizing Jerusalem entirely, and changing its characters and its Arab population, in order to settle it as a Fait accompli " an eternal capital of Israel".Based on the results of the study, the researcher has set the following recommendations :- To call on both Arab and Muslim nations to take crucial sincere stances and procedures that may force the occupation to change its racial policy in the Palestinian territories and especially in the city of Jerusalem.- To call upon juristic and legal organizations that defend human rights to institute legal proceedings against the Israeli entity in international congregations to sue the leaders of the occupation for the daily crimes against the Islamic sanctities. - To provide more space to present the issues of Jerusalem in the Palestinian and Arabic media in accordance with the importance of the city, and the seriousness of what it's subjected to, and to give the issues and affairs related to Jerusalem more media interest. - To invite international, Arabic, and local legal organizations and research centers to extremely highlight the reality of the city of Jerusalem, and the aggressive campaign it faces by holding conferences and seminars that uncover the falseness of the Israeli historical allegation about Jerusalem. - To activate the role of the Palestinian, Arabic, and international media in setting out to uncover the continuous practices by Israel in Jerusalem, and to highlight the programmed escalation and violations, which are being carried out daily against the city and its residents, that aim to wipe out the religious, cultural, geographic, and demographic characters of the city; besides, working to keep the issue of Jerusalem alive in the minds of the Arab and Islamic masses. - To end the Palestinian- Palestinian split in order to be wholly engaged in confronting the Israeli programmed escalation in Jerusalem, which is being executed in an accelerated pace for Judaizing the entire city, amidst the preoccupation of the Palestinians in their internal disputes and bickering.