Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease among children in Gaza Governorates: A Case Control Study

Mahmoud Said Al-Absi
محمود سعيد العبسي
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Al-Quds University
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the emerging worldwide critical health problems encountered in child life. The disease in children is a fatal illness and the infants with advanced renal diseases are at higher risk of death in the first 2 years of life. This case control study aimed to determine the main risk factors of CKD among children in Gaza governorates (GGs). The sample study consisted of 400 child; 200 cases and 200 controls. The participants were selected from those medical files at Al-Ranteesy hospital while the controls were chosen from the main governmental primary health care centers in each governorate. A questionnaire was constructed and data was collected by the researcher through a face to face interview with the mothers of children. The results of the study showed that the most frequent renal cause of CKD was Nephrotic Syndrome (30%) followed by Vesico-ureteral Reflux (20%), and Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (18%). While the most congenital renal cause was kidney atrophy (23%), and born with one kidney (20%). Among socio-demographic risk factors, percentage of cases sample were (57%) male, and (43%) female. Other risk factors include lower educational level for mother, child birth weight, small gestational age, child obesity, history of HTN and anemia. The study found that there is no relation between the extensive use of antibiotics and analgesic. However, analgesic drugs use during pregnancy can lead to CKD at childhood, nevertheless it was not associated with antibiotic drugs use. Maternal obesity, and low amniotic fluid shows positive association with child CKD. Mothers with chronic health problems especially HTN and DM and maternal age during pregnancy, are not consider risk factors. A significant positive association with living area in camps and villages, living near hazards, and unsafety drinking water was confirmed. The study concluded that most of the risk factors appeared are avoidable. It is found necessary to follow up at maternal and antenatal care, encouraging child health screening for UTI and other urologic problems, controlling of environmental hazard can decrease the risks of CKD in GGs. Key words: Chronic Kidney Disease in children, Risk factors, Gaza Governorates.