اليمن: تكوين الدولة القطرية اليمنية ( 1994 _ 1962
رامي عبدالرحمن اسماعيل الرمحي
RAMI ABED-ALRAHMAN ISMAIL AL;RAMAHI
This study is based on addressing the dual problem of the research namely the relationship of state formation country of Yemen based on the political role of the army, which necessitated the need to examine the emergence of the state and the developments of the social local political aspect of colonialism in its establishment. As the political life with its ingredients, a stage which is reflected by the interactions of various state institutions and roles, it is necessary to examine the emergence ,structure and the evolution of this political system and the variables that hit it over in the last decades. A brief history of Yemen has been studied from the emergence of state in the ancient history as the appearance of state of Maeen on the political scene and successive appearance of other countries after it and those that followed the State and the decline of its history, and the reasons that prompted the Ottomans to spill over to Yemen. The researcher studied first the Ottoman occupation to Yemen in 1538, and the return back to the Ottoman occupation of North Yemen in 1849 , the policy of the Ottomans and the implications of management in Yemen The British occupation to South Yemen has been studied where the start date back to British interest in Aden in the late eighteenth century, especially when started in the French campaign to conquer Egypt in 1798, in addition to the strategic importance of Aden, which was the focus of attention of British colonialism. The unification of North Yemen under the authority of Imam Yahya in 1918 to start a modern history of the date of appearance of Independent State of Yemen during the reign of the Imam. Yemen knew a history of unification and this does not mean that Yemen was not fragmented. In addition to the divisions created by British colonialism, and the Ottoman in the past . North Yemen has been studied in terms of the development of political system (and the formation of a historical movement), the social forces and their role in building the system (the tribes and the army), and reaction, which led to the emergence of the movement of opposition represented by multiple revolutions of a revolutions in 1948 and 1955 and other revolutions, which were extinguished. We also do not forget the political role of the army to change the political map and the establishment of republican system in 1962, which was the strongest against the monarchy and the real desire by the Yemeni people to be free. The conditions of Yemen before the 1962 revolution to the victory of the ح revolution and the establishment of the Yemen Arab Republic, and I tackled to the regime in North Yemen. The political role of tribe in Yemen was studied where the differences and conflicts took place in Yemen, despite the unity of both as still repercussions to this day though it is not quite the phenomenon. The tribe remains to play a major and important role. The tribe was not alien to the Yemeni society, but an actor and a key to the essence and the heart of the social structure and cultural heritage. The Yemeni society is a tribal society, but the resistance of Yemen of all models were continuing in the struggle for independence. The outbreak of the revolution in North Yemen was a great introduction to the adoption of a new style, a style of armed action, which formed the basis from which started the revolution in the south, Britain's presence in Aden and announced the Port as a free port, expansion of trade , navigation and provide transportation to open the Suez Canal, and the emergence of market of Global capitalism has led to the socio-political development of South Yemen, represented by the nucleus of the working class in Aden and the nucleus of the National Movement in the southern part of Yemen . Britain tried to establish (the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South), began to appear and develop forces and political parties in southern Yemen, that reached a peak emergence of the National Front, of Global capitalism has led to the socio-political development of South Yemen, represented by the nucleus of the working class in Aden and the nucleus of the National Movement in the southern part of Yemen . Britain tried to establish (the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South), began to appear and develop forces and political parties in southern Yemen, that reached a peak emergence of the National Front, and the beginning of armed struggle Where the split in the National Front and the Organization of liberating the occupied south, to the gate of which the south won political independence in 1967 as independence day for the Republic of People of South Yemen, then the transfer of authority to the left-wing in the National Front and the last devastating conflicts and divisions that have occurred, including (nationalists and socialists). Since the war in 1967 between the fronts and the second in 1978 among a group Salim Rabee' and other blocks other than the National Front, and the conflict . The recent and devastating conflict in 1986, which was not a political conflict, but intertwined factors of tribal and favoritism, and the disastrous results at the political level, economic and social, half of the southern army and leadership escaped to the north. In addition to this, the fall of the USSR.All of the above weakened the south that did not find his way out of the political crisis only to think hard , self-criticism and political awareness to enter into a union with the north. ط Finally, the study focused on the Yemeni unity between the two parts, from the struggle of the Yemeni people (in the north and South) towards steps of unity and conditions of the unity and its inception challenges ,and the changes on the political level in the south and north, and the rapprochement which happened to them . Moreover, the struggle for authority in the southern part, which previously stated. It was the last year split into two halves to build a Union State in 1990, building the democratic choice coupled with the multiplicity of political diversity, the social and economic path to the unification of Yemen, and get rid of the bloody nature of violent conflicts to reach authority. Moreover, the role of the Yemeni army and patterns of intervention in political life have been studied although it was not prominent, leading to the negative consequences of this intervention on the functioning of civil government and abortion of the military to democratization continuously since 1990, after nearly a month to sign (the Compact and Agreement treaty ) in 1994.The Secretary-General of the Yemeni Socialist Party (Salem Al-Baid )expressed his desire for the independence of southern from the north, where the outbreak of war in 1994 that did not mercy people, stone and the outbreak of political and economic situation and the worsening of the situation in the country. The series of conflicts continues to this day and the best proof of that Houthi rebellion today.
الدراسات الاقليمية , Regional Studies