Estimation of haloacetonitriles formation in water: Uniform formation conditions versus formation potential tests

dc.contributor.author Kanan, Amer
dc.contributor.author Karanfil, Tanju
dc.date.accessioned 2021-06-08T16:31:51Z
dc.date.available 2021-06-08T16:31:51Z
dc.date.issued 2020-07-13
dc.description HANs formation from five different chlorinated water sources were higher under UFC than FP tests. • Chlorination FP tests do not provide meaningful information for HAN precursors in water samples. • UFC (or SDS) chlorination test should be used for a better estimation of HAN precursors in water. • Higher HANs formed under FP test compared to UFC test during chloramination. • Chloramination FP tests may be used for determining HAN precursors in water reactive to chloramine. en_US
dc.description.abstract To date, several studies have used formation potential (FP) tests to examine the presence of HAN precursors in water and wastewater. However, given the decomposition of HANs with time at elevated free chlorine levels, FP test results do not provide meaningful results.Weconducted side-by-side FP and uniform formation condition (UFC) experiments to demonstrate that, in order to obtain practical, meaningful, and representative information about HANs formation and their precursors during chlorination, it is important to conduct experiments and report results under UFC [or simulated distribution system (SDS)] conditions. The results confirmed higher HAN formation under UFC than FP tests during chlorination of the tested two surface water and three wastewater effluent samples, indicating HAN decomposition at high chlorine conditions of FP tests. In addition, thewell reported ratio (~10%) of HAN/THMfrom previous studies was more consistentwith the UFC results but was lower than 10% in the FP results. On the other hand, HAN formation during chloramination of the same samples were lower under the UFC than FP conditions. Furthermore, FP tests under both chlorination and chloramination resulted in lower bromine substitution factor. We concluded that reporting results of HANs FP tests are not representative, and future studies should focus on UFC or distribution system specific (SDS) experiments for chlorination. However, chloramination FP tests may still provide some information about the HAN precursors in waters. en_US
dc.identifier.citation Kanan A, Karan T (2020) Estimation of haloacetonitriles formation in water : Uniform formation conditions versus formation potential tests. 744:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140987 en_US
dc.identifier.other https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140987
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.alquds.edu/handle/20.500.12213/6399
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Science of the Total Environment en_US
dc.subject Disinfection by-products en_US
dc.subject Haloacetonitriles en_US
dc.subject Formation potential test en_US
dc.subject Uniform formation conditions test en_US
dc.subject Chlorination Chloramination en_US
dc.title Estimation of haloacetonitriles formation in water: Uniform formation conditions versus formation potential tests en_US
dc.type Article en_US
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