الليل في الشعر الجاهلي
ابراهيم راغب ناجي ملحم
Ibrahim Ragheb Najy Milihim
This study deals with the account of "night" in the pre-Islamic poetry. The study will attempt to reflect how the pre-Islamic poets dealt with the night and the legends and myths they weaved about it The study of "night" in the pre-Islamic poetry as an independent and comprehensive unit is unprecedented. There were only scattered readings in magazines and papers which don't fulfill the requirements of an MA or PHD theses The study consists of four chapters. Chapter one is a philology of the meanings and indications of night. Chapter two talks about the night according to the grievers, mourners, the paupers, the lovers, the vision and the rain. Chapter three is an artistic study of the poetry of the night and the impact of the night in the pre-Islamic poets' emotions. The last chapter dealt with the religious, legendary, psychological and social dimensions of the night given that poetry is a reflection of the dominant life conditions Research methodology: In this study the comprehensive method was adopted including descriptive, legendary, psychological and social methods since one single method can't cover the whole subject Significance of the study: The importance of this study lies in that it describes the night phenomenon in the pre-Islamic poetry. In the darkness of the night a great deal of the pre-Islamic Arab life took place such as wars, raids, worship of stars and planets which lighted the darkness of the night Limitations of the study: The most important element that hindered the study was the rarity of literature for review about the subject in addition to the lack of references in the available libraries. Another barrier was the difficulty of transportation from one governorate to another as a result of the dire security conditions 120 Objectives of the study: Since poetry is the chronicle of the Arab life, the study aimed at opening that chronicle to read it in an artistic, psychological, social and legendary perspective This way enables the depiction of the Arabs' life during the pre-Islamic days. The study concentrates on poetry rather than prose since the former is more descriptive of the pre-Islamic life than the latter The study came out with the following results: First: According to the Arabic dictionaries, night is the opposite of day. It begins withstarts in the Ssun set and ends in the dawn break throughwith the breaking of the dawn. Night is the darkness of the night, while day is the light of the day. In addition, there are synonyms for the night, such as: darkness, gloominess, murkiness, duskiness and dimness. Second: The scene of the night and the murky heavens with the stars was the most influential scene in the old human sense. The darkness was portrayed as the initial womb which gave birth to the universe. Third: The pre-Islamic people had contrastive attitudes towards the night in terms of love and hatred; some of them depicted it as being sometimes long sometimes and sometimes short, according to their psychological state. Fourth: The pre-Islamic ideology was n'ot separated from the ancient Semitic ideology, in which night had several a great implications, developing which developed into idiomatic, psychological and religious indications. Fifth: Pre-Islamic poets depended upon technical instruments in order to extract the mental meaning and the psychological state of the scene of the night. The poetry of "Imru- ul Qays", " An-Nabighah" and "Al-Asha" represent the first class pre-Islamic poetry in terms of eloquence, a purity and renewal in the poem. The night's unit in the poetry of "Imru-ul-Qays" lured many critics and researchers in theto Arab literature, mainly the pre-Islamic. Sixth: Night in poetry was only imaginary; "night like the sea waves" in which worries, afflictions and despairs are culminated. It is a night that 121 dominates the psychological and the private world of the poet since its stars and planets stand still. Seventh: The "Paupers" had their special taste of the night in addition to their special rituals. It is horrifying, lonely, friendly, and veiling, in addition to being a space for bread-winning and showing manhood and honor. Eighth: Night had been regarded as the time for contradictions and unfamiliarity. It had been also the time of sentimentalities and stressed emotions, since it brings about the adorned objects such as the moon and the stars, which were have been worshipped as Gods since the break dawn of history. Ninth: To the pre-Islamic poet, night had represented the time during which the evil spirits were released in order to take revenge. It also represented times of hunger, grievances, stars, mediation and complaint. Night was the most prominent mark of the ancient Arab culture, contrary to the Arab-Islamic eras, during which night was an opportunity for entertainment. Tenth: The prePre-Islamic poetry marked the first source for knowledge about spiritual and material aspects of the life of oldancient Arabians, whose language was selected by his almighty God to be the language of the last heavenly message, " the Qur'an," and the last prophet to be one of them. Eleventh: Most of the Semitic cultures considered night to offer residence for the bad, evil-thirsty and aimless spirits. However the old ancient Arab culture portrayed night as time for the emergence of love and , refuge of legends and the practice of religious beliefs to pray for rain to fall.
اللغة العربية وآدابها , Arabic Language & literature