Favorable attributes and biological effects of Hibiscus Sabdariffa
Iman Ibrahim Mohammad Shafout
إيمان إبراهيم محمد شعفوط
The hibiscus Sabdariffa calyx extract was studied for its antioxidant activity and some biological effects. Three different solvents were used to extract the hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (Ethanol 99%, ethanol 35% and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant capacity was determined in these three different hibiscus extracts by DPPH assay. The extract exhibited inhibition of the DPPH activity in three extracts reaching 87.85% in ethanol 99% extract, 69.64% in ethanol 35% extract and 81.6% in ethyl acetate extract. By using Gallic acid as a standard, the Folin-Ciocalteau method was used to determine the total phenolic content. The total phenolic content was found to be 95.37 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid/ g in ethanol 35% extract, 55.8 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid/ g in ethanol 99%, and 48.73 ± 1.5 mg gallic acid /g in Ethyl acetate extract. The total flavonoids content was estimated by the aluminum chloride method. The total flavonoids content was found to be the highest amount with ethanol 35% extract which reached 64.8 ± 0.88 mg/g, while it was 24.59 ± 1.7 mg/g and 20.1 ± 0.9 mg/g in ethyl acetate, respectively. The hibiscus extract was examined using an HPLC device at a wavelength of 280 nm, and the result was that it contained a group of compounds: Gallic acid, chlorogenic, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, and sinapic acid. The main enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, which creates cholesterol, is 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. When HMG-CoA reductase is inhibited, the liver produces less cholesterol. Statins, a class of synthetic medications, are frequently used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are required because statin side effects exist. In this study, the anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extracts was examined. The therapy reduced LDL cholesterol by 41.7±0.87%. Meanwhile the hibiscus sabdariffa microemulsion reduced the LDL by 24% Although the concentration of the active substance is 12.9% of the first concentration. The anti-glycation synthesis of end products was assessed using an in vitro glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) assay.. The obtained results show that Concentrations of (10.7, 8, 6.7, 5.3, and 2.6). mg/mL of Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extract could inhibit AGE-formation by 17%, 14%, 6%, 5.68%, - 5% respectively.In the presence of positive controls (Gentamicin (10 mg/disc) and Penicillin) when using the disc diffusion method (10 units), the hibiscus sabdariffa extract showed a good ability to inhibit the action of four different types of bacteria (MRSA, E-coli, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas). The results of the extract’s inhibition on MRSA at concentrations of 100% and 75% were 26±3mm and 8.3±0.6mm, respectively. The results of the extract’s inhibition on E-coli were the concentrations of 100% and 75% were 20.3 ± 1.1 mm and 7 ± 1 mm respectively while the inhibition effect of +ve control Gentamicin was 15 mM Hibiscus extract had an inhibitory effect on S. aureus where the of inhibition for 100% and 75% were 34.3 ± 0.6 mm and 11 ± 1 mm which is higher than the effect of +ve control penicillin 15 mm. The effect of the extract inhibition on Pseudomonas at a concentration of 100% and 75%, respectively, 24.3 ± 0.6 mm and 9.7 ± 1.1 mm, while the effect of +ve control Gentamicin reached 29 mm. In this experiment, a phase diagram was worked out, and two important areas appeared. The microemulsion area centered at the top of the drawing is close to the highest percentage of the surfactant and the crystal liquid area. The preliminary results of the current investigation indicate that the H. sabdariffa extract could lower cholesterol levels by reducing the activity of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase.. In addition, the Hibiscus extract has antioxidants, phenols, and flavonoid compounds. The hibiscus has also an antibacterial effect.