مدى تطبيق المزارعيين للممارسات الصحية السليمة أثناء عملية الحلابة والعلاقة بين مدى الإلتزام بتطبيق تلك الممارسات وبين المحتوى الميكروبي للحليب الخام في مزارع الأبقار بمحافظة الخليل (2018- 2019).
عبد الله نعيم عودة الرجبي
The study aims to assess the degree of correct and healthy practices (before, during and after). The process of milking, also to recognize the degree of applying those practices to the microbial content of raw milk at Hebron Governorate’s cow farms. All stages of healthy and correct practices which should be concentrated upon have been followed and they are ( taking care of the health status of the cows, minding the hygiene of the milker and the workers adhering to the hygienic conditions relating to cooling and storing the raw milk ) and that is to identify the relation between the degree of adhering to the healthy practices during the process of milking and the microbial content based on laboratory tests and if there are differences in the average responses about the degree of applying the correct an the healthy practices of milking process by the farmers in Hebron Governorate. Such variables are attributed to the place of the farm, the age of the animal, the size of the farm and the amount of the production. The researcher has followed the descriptive and experimental approach for its suitability for the purposes of this study. The population of the study consisted of all cow farms in Hebron Governorate for the year (2018-2019) whose size is more than (10) cows, which at the same time rely on microbial count in the supply of raw milk to Al-Junaidy factory. The sample was distributed over Dura, Yatta and Hebron where it was found that the number of (20) farms only achieved those conditions. Therefore, a comprehensive survey sample was conducted, and the study sample was divided into two parts by taking laboratory samples of raw milk for cow farms for a microbial content test of a period of five months from (December 2018 t- April 2019) .A sample was taken every two weeks and the number of the samples reached 200 . In addition to interviewing farmers in these farms to fill out a questionnaire to obtain data on the extent of adherence to the application of good hygiene practices from dairy cow breeders, where the number of questionnaires was (20) forms. The questionnaire of the study had a high degree of validity and reliability. Relative frequencies, arithmetic means, central tendencies, and Pearson matrix tests were ذ used, One way analysis of variance and Kruskal Wallis Test in order to answer the questions and hypotheses of the study. The study showed that the degree of commitment to the application of good hygienic practices during the milking process in the cow farms in Hebron Governorate was all extremely high, and the laboratory tests results were all identical, There were (191)first degree of raw milk samples and (9) samples of second degree. There was no third degree or no samples that were not a match. It was found that the axis of the special study in the application of health practices (minding the hygiene of the cows’ milker, adherence to hygienic conditions for storage and cooling of raw milk, the commitment of the workers to the hygiene conditions) were of a very high degree . It was evident that there were no statistical differences were found at the level of the function (α≤0.05) in the mean responses of the respondents on the extent of applying health practices during the milking process in cow farms in Hebron Governorate due to the control variables were (farm location, animal age, farm size and production volume). There were statistically significant differences at the mean level (α≤ 0.05) in the mean of the responses of the individuals consisting the sample on the extent of the application of hygienic practices during the milking process regarding workers' adherence to hygiene conditions attributable to the variable (the location of the farm) and in the axis of concern for the cleanliness of the cows due to variable (the age of the animal). The study showed a significant statistical inverse relationship between the extent of adherence to the application of good hygienic practices during the process of milking (the health condition of the cows ,the cleanliness of the milking area , the hygiene of the milk, the personal hygiene of the staff, the storage) and between the microbial content of raw milk in cow farms in Hebron Governorate. One of the most important recommendations of the study is to increase interest in milk cows farms through the government due to the financial and nutritional values, committing the farmers to appointa veterinarian in each farm and supplying the necessary guidance and support farmers to develop in the dairy cows sector to achieve self-sufficiency. Supporting the farmers by the government and the civil society institution working in agriculture to provide tanks and refrigerated transport vehicles to maintain the quality and safety of milk, and to find full cooperation between the supervising entities , the civil society institutions and farmers in order to achieve sustainable cooperation and maintain the quality of dairy products.