تقييم تلوث مياه الأمطار بالمعادن الثقيلة خلال الحرب على قطاع غزة Determination of trace metals in rain water during the November 2012 bombing in Gaza Strip

Date
2016-05-30
Authors
هناء عماد محمد اشقير
hanaa imad mohammed eshqair
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
AL-Quds University
جامعة القدس
Abstract
Surface water contamination with heavy metals is one of the most important environmental issues as they are toxic even at low concentrations. This study was conducted to determine the water quality of harvested rain water used for drinking in Gaza after the 2012 bombing, and to assess the potential effect of bombing on the amounts of trace metals in harvested rainwater. In this study Gaza strip was divided in four areas (North (a) and (b)), Middle and Southern area.). A total of 43 water samples classified between bombed and non-bombed area, were collected in November 2012 during the first rain after eight days of bombings from 43 rain water pools and from an area that was hit by many rockets. Water samples have been analyzed for different trace (heavy) metals (Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, Al, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, U, and Cd) as well as phosphorous content by ICP/MS. The samples were analyzed for their pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids. For some water samples the results were found to be within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guideline. In North (a) Gaza Strip, Result showed that eight heavy metals Ba, Mn, Al, Pb, Ni, As, Cd and Cr have exceeded the WHO limits, the highest percent was for Ba metal in 93% of the 16 samples. Furthermore, results showed that the concentrations of three heavy metals Cu, Zn and U is within the allowed WHO limits in drinking water. However the concentration of Ba, Al, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, As, and Cd are found to be higher than the allowed WHO limits in 93%, 63%, 44%, 38%, 25%, 6%, 6%, and 6% of the water samples analyzed in this study, respectively. Potential contamination by different number of rockets F16 and a lot of destruction caused by shelling on the agricultural lands in this area are responsible for the occurrence of the trace metals with high concentration. The result showed using this water is dangerous for human health, especially when used for drinking and agriculture purpose. In North b, Result showed that this area have been contaminated by twelve heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, Al, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Cd) in addition to P and U .Al metal was found in 73% of the analyzed eleven samples. On the other hand ten metals of them (Ba, Cu, Co, Mn, V, Al, Cr, Ni, As, and Cd) were detected in 100% of these samples, while the concentration of eight metals (Al, Pb, Ba, Mn, Ni, Cd, As and Cr) are higher than the allowed WHO limits in 73%, 63%, 45%, 36%, 36%, 36%, 27% and 18% of the water samples analyzed in this study, respectively. Phosphorous was also detected in all water samples analyzed in this study with high concentrations (range of 100.86-2467.48 µg/L XI and average of 682.22 µg/L). These high concentrations of phosphorous was found in sample number 8 (Beirut Street, near to Abu Mazen Square) may be attributed to the white phosphorous munitions used in Gaza during the war. The area was hit by different number of missiles. Most of the samples in this area were potentially contaminated by eight to nine missiles, which were bombed very close to the building where people live. This is very danger for human health. In Middle Gaza Strip (Nussairat area), Results showed that twelve trace metals (Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, Al, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Cd) were detected in all water samples analyzed. Furthermore result showed that the highest percent of samples that exceeded the limit of WHO limit was for Barium, in 83% of the samples analyzed in this region. Additionally twelve heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, Al, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, and Cd) were detected in 100% of water samples analyzed. Six heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and U) were found in the analyzed water samples within in these limits. Phosphorous was also detected in all water samples analyzed in this region with high concentrations (range of 113.01-2855.07 µg/L, and average of 1039.4 µg/L). This high concentration of phosphorous was found in sample number 20 (sample from an area that was hit by 5 rockets) may be attributed to the white phosphorous munitions used in this war against Gaza. This area was also hit by many different number of missiles. In the Southern area, Results showed that eleven trace metals Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, As, Pb, Cr, Ni and Al were detected in all water samples analyzed, the highest percent of samples that exceeded the limit of WHO limit, were for Al and Pb, with 90% of the samples analyzed exceeded this limit. Furthermore, result showed that the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Pb, Ba, Ni and As) exceeded the allowed WHO limits in 90%, 90%, 30%, 20% and 10% respectively. However the concentration of Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, As, U, P, Pb and Al) were detected in 100% of the water samples. Phosphorous was also detected in all water samples analyzed in this study with high concentrations (range of 286.61-7390.62 µg/L). These high concentrations of phosphorous was found in sample number 42 (sample from an area that was heavily bombed) the number of bombing was concentrated and heavy. Furthermore, the concentrations of all heavy metals that were detected in the collected harvested rainwater from different areas vary significantly between the 43 samples. All of the metals were detected in all water samples that had been analyzed in this study.
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Keywords
الدراسات البيئية, Environmental Studies
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