تأثير مصادرة المصادر الطبيعية على إدارة أنظمة المزرعة The impact of land confiscation for the separation wall on farming system management and development in Jenin district

Date
2006-02-01
Authors
خالد علي مصطفى سليمان
khalid Ali Mustafa Suleiman
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
AL-Quds University
جامعة القدس
Abstract
With the rising of population, demand for agricultural land and food production is rising too, while the natural resources (land and water) become more limited. Therefore, a state of conflict and competition over land and water resources has arisen and continues to prevail, since the agriculture sector has contributed to the over all income especially women activities, provides people with most of their food needs and provides work opportunity for those who were forbidden to go to Israel to work. The process of confiscation the land for the above reasons, follow these means: Land confiscation for security needs included Jordan valley lands about 190 thousand donoms, Land confiscation in a claim of governmental lands which contributes about 13% from the area of west bank, which is the most familiar, Land confiscation for establishing settlements or expansion it, and to create by-pass roads for their use, and the settlements that founded from 1977 – 1983, with a total of 15165 donoms in Jenin area from 938028 donoms ,and they are: Harmeesh, Hannaneet, Rehan, Shakeed, Mevodotan, Ganim, Qadim, Sa Nur, Homesh and Arraba Military Post And finally the most of the confiscated fertilized land was taken by the racial separation wall, and we aren't to forget the by-pass roads that connect settlements with green line (1948), these roads takes over 1650 donom, so we will focus in our study on the racial separation wall in Jenin district. The overall objective of the research that’s conducted in the period from May 2004 to June 2005, is studying the impact of land confiscation and the natural resources on the agriculture management systems in Jenin district to develop, determine and analyze the measures of the socio - economic impacts from the use of limited land and water in such way that improve and sustainable living standards of the farming population. For descriptive and comparative study, Information was collected by questionnaires through interviews in means of family survey, and secondary data from different sources. The family survey include the farmers in two areas, the selection of the locations depended on the most affected families by the separation wall and the most confiscation of natural resources, which led to escalate unemployment, so the locations in area 1 are Anin, AlTaybeh and Zboba at the north west, Tura Ash Sharqeia and Al Gharbeia, Ya’bad, Nazlet AL-Sheikh Zeid, Om Dar, Al-Khuljan, Zabda and Daher Al- A'bed in area 2 at the south west of Jenin. The process of the separation wall construction had a major economic impact, while the relative intensity of the impact varies by location and economic activity; its immediate effects included the destruction or confiscation of agricultural land and assets: a total of 1094 donoms just confiscated from 2068 donoms of the targeted group in the study of considered area, that the farm income decreased in area 1 by 9.23% after the wall, since it depends on lands in farming, while in area 2 they depend on animal breeding so the percentage increases by 4.96%. And the reason is Inaccessibility to agricultural land like grazing lands (pastures) and assets, including water resources that are very expensive and not available. Added limitations on the mobility of people and goods (marketing by using of pass roads), therefore higher transactions costs: Marketing faces 67.68 % in area 1 and 66.67 % in area 2 for farming production of farmers, the productivity is subjected to severe impacts from the political situation especially in area 2 for the animal production and in area 1 for olive oil production. The alternative of Israeli markets is the wholesale market in Nablus or Jenin, and a temporary one in Quabatia, with its extensive trade of large quantities of agricultural products; as a result 65% of the farmers prefer to sell their goods and products at the farm or in their homes. For our recommendation, the priority should be taken into consideration in most affected villages by land confiscation to improve all public services (education, health and basic infrastructure) from all aspects, with a number of recommended actions could be applied to determine the basic needs of compounds and different sites in Jenin district through focusing on negative aspects of the separation wall, so to minimize the damages or even eliminate it, such as developing human resources and supporting the cooperative level as agricultural co-operatives, social services, and establishing active youth centers with vocational training for low income laborers. Encourage sectors that provide job opportunities to create new markets for Palestinians labor forces through developing productive sector and agricultural sector by governmental and NGO's (International or local) through: Establish new agricultural roads to ease the farmers transitions to their land and markets, rehabilitate new lands for planting, use consecutive planting, especially plastic houses nurseries, and develop some economical value crops like olive and tobacco, rehabilitate old water wells and small streams to elevate quality water and then increase the planting area, recycle water from plastic houses and home use to irrigate farms by using water harvesting system, establish profitable veteran clinics to provide health service for animal assets, rehabilitate pines and fields especially at the east part of the district and secure emergency food aid for those who have lost their homes and land due to the wall. And get advantage of international, national, and holly occasions to empower Palestinians about their national and social duties which achieve cooperative society
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Keywords
التنمية الريفية المستدامة, Sustainable Rural Development
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