أثر تطبيق المعيار الدولي للتقار ير المالية رقم9 الادوات المالية على سياسات الائتمان في البنوك العاملة في فلسطين
رافع فتحي مرعب
Rafi’ Fathi Mureb
The study aimed to highlight the impact of the application of IFRS 9 'Financial instruments' on the Palestinian banks' credit policies. This study was limited to banks operating in Palestine between the second half of 2018 and the end of 2019. It aimed to identify the connection between the new standard’s application and improving the quality of provided facilities, establish a link between guarantees and allocations and the banking sector’s strength in crisis management, increase the protection of small investors, and stress the relationship with the facility grant to SMEs and its effect on the reduction of facility grants as well as its impact on bank profitability. The study's significance derived from the value of IFRS 9 for credit policies on a global scale as well as on a Palestinian scale. It was also important to establish ways and controls to reduce disruption and its effect on allocation, protect the international economy and the Palestinian economy on one hand, and also to examine the harmonization of the standard's application to the PBS, in particular in relation to profitability. The present study was prompted by the recent implementation in Palestine of the new standards, the weak economic conditions in the Palestinian territories, the large number of granted bank facilities, and the inability to pay loan premiums on maturity. The study used the theoretical descriptive approach. In order to assess the variables, the study used the questionnaire as a study tool. A total of 133 questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 14 Palestinian banks, which included both senior and mid-level officials from the credit and non-performing loan management services, as well as the finance and risk departments. A total of 93 valid questionnaires were retrieved. The SPSS tool was used to analyze and process the collected data. The study’s findings revealed that the efficiency and value of guaranteed credit played a major factor in credit decision making, and thus the value of non-performing loans and profitability. The credit study was supported by consistent guidelines and a written credit policy, which aided in improving the efficiency of credit facilities. There was a connection between the implementation of IFRS 9 and an increase in the quality of credit facilities. There was also a connection between the implementation of IFRS 9 and the allocations. The study also revealed that a customer's moral and credit integrity played a significant role in granting or restricting credit facilities. There was a connection between using IFRS 9 and providing more protection to small bank investors (shareholders). Credit facilities were restricted for a number of reasons. There was a connection between implementing IFRS 9 and restricting credit facilities, which had an impact on bank profitability. Furthermore, capital increases, required reserves, and compliance with regulatory and other criteria improved the bank's resilience to crises. There was a connection between the use of IFRS 9 and the resilience of the banking sector in the face of crises. Banks' adherence to international standards and disclosure and accountability principles, as well as the bank's strong financial position and net profit growth, among other factors, increased shareholder confidence. The bank's solid financial position aided in the creation of expected credit loss allocations for credit facilities provided to small businesses. The implementation of IFRS 9, which evolved from the previous IFRS 39, has resulted in the reclassification and calculation of financial assets. Economic conditions and the availability of economic viability were critical considerations when making a fiduciary decision to grant credit facilities to small-scale enterprises. Since its use influenced bank liquidity, the key goal of its use was credit risk management and the calculation of potential credit losses. The study made some important recommendations. Workshops and training sessions on the implications of applying IFRS 9 for staff of Palestinian banks' credit, risk, and finance services were required. Interbank workshops were needed on how to address IFRS 9 requirements and provisions, particularly in the context of political and economic instability and Palestinian circumstances.