A survey of four routing protocols for wireless sensor networks
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Routing protocols are the most important aspect in Wireless Sensor Networks, since they have a direct effect on the overall network performance like throughput, power consumption, packet loss, and end- to-end delay. Despite the introduction of a wide variety of routing protocols in the literature, this area of research is still active and faces new challenges due to the growth of WSNs applications and sizes. In this paper, we perform a survey of four well-known Wireless Sensor Networks protocols and compare their performance; They are: LEACH, DEEC, M-GEAR and EESAA. In our study, we tracked four performance parameters: node lifetime, message delivery throughput, cluster head formation stability, and traffic imposed on the cluster heads. We performed a MATLAB simulation to create six different scenarios in a controlled environment by varying the grid area, the number of nodes in the grid, and the placement of the main Base Station (middle location vs. border location). We present our findings and classify these four protocols according to our evaluation criteria. At the end, we give recommendations concerning their potential usage in different environments and real-life scenarios.