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    Spatio-Temporal Analysis for LanduseLandcover in Bethlehem District Using Remote Sensing and GIS
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-12-22) Hrenat, Hala ; ِAbuseba’a, Shurooq ; Abu Rajab, Nidal
    The aim of this project is to make a comprehensive study to find solutions for spatial issues in Bethlehem, such as the situation of natural reserves, the situation of roads, the spatial analysis for schools and facilities locations, the expansion of urban areas. The data was collected from satellite imagery (Landsat from USGS Earth Explorer, Sentinel from ESA Open Access Hup, and municipalities), facilities locations (schools, dumping sites, and hospitals), as well as Aerial photos. The data of satellite imagery were classified according to Corrine classifications, and then analyzed the current facilities of Bethlehem District. Spatial analysis was conducted to suggest new facility locations, and centerlines of roads were digitized from aerial photos and were analyzed to suggest new roads location. In the end, the results showed that there was a big growth of urban areas, shrinkage of the natural reserves areas, and an expansion of the Israeli settlements during the years (1987, 2002, 2013, 2015, 2018). The researchers suggest new places for roads and facilities (such as schools, and dumping sites).
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    Smart Glove for Translating Arabic Sign Language
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-12-22) Qasrawi, Hana’ ; Shawar, Dana ; Dwiek, Amal
    Abstract: Deaf and mute people who use sign language are often isolated and forced to live in a limited world, as they face serious communication problems. This project uses small components to build a communication device to support the communication between deaf and mute people with people who do not understand their language, thus fostering their independence. The proposed system includes a smart glove that translates the Arabic sign alphabets, which is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets (also known as finger alphabets or hand alphabets) have often been used in deaf education. The smart glove that translates the Arabic Sign Language (ARSL) alphabet was successfully enabled deaf and mute users to translate the signals they make with their hands and fingers into Arabic letters that are transmitted via Bluetooth to the mobile device to appear on the mobile screen. The glove also enabled the user to communicate with people who have no idea about ARSL. Background:  Arabic Sign Language (ARSL) Arabic Sign Language is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the Arab World. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and other concerned. ARSLs are still in their developmental stages, only in recent years has there been an awareness of the existence of communities consisting of individuals with disabilities; the Deaf are not an exception. Arab Deaf communities are almost closed ones. Interaction between a Deaf community and a hearing one is minimal and is basically concentrated around families with deaf members, relatives of the deaf.  Literature Review There are several types of translating sign language to readable text systems. These types appear with many features, but nearly with the same task. In the next sections, a discussion about translating sign language to a readable text system that exists and the scientific topic of some sign language applications is presented. In addition, we make a comparison between all of them. Objectives: We aim in our project to achieve several objectives: 1. Create a technology that helps deaf communicate with un-deaf people by translating sign language into readable text. Through the invention of the smart glove that senses the hand and fingers movement of the deaf person. 2. Eliminate the barrier between deaf people who use sign language and those who do not understand it, through the translation of the sign language, used by the deaf people, to Arabic language and display it on the screen. 3. Make this project the first step to create a robot that can be used to teach people sign language. We can make this technology part of the special robot by using an intelligent technological system. Methods: The system consists of two parts. The first part is the sensor system which consists of the flex sensors, accelerometer and pushbuttons. Because the output of the flex sensors and accelerometer is an analog value, we convert it into digital signals. The second part consists of smart phone and Bluetooth module. These two parts are connected to Arduino. The smart glove converts the Arabic sign language into letters in Arabic language. Therefore, we designed it as follows: nine of flex sensors will be put on the glove, nine sensors on finger joints and two pushbuttons, as shown in figure 2. This system is based on wearing the deaf the glove in his right hand and then makes an Arabic sign language signal. The system consists of a number of flex sensors and pushbuttons which give a certain value reading that reflects the states of whole hand and each finger, In addition we put accelerometer to distinction between similar lettering in the movement of the fingers but different in the direction of the hand. Then these readings are compared with the readings that are stored according to the 28 signals of the Arabic Sign Language. Based on this. The system will take the correct signal and send it as a readable text through Bluetooth to the mobile android application and displayed it on the screen. :stRuseR By the end of the implementation process, the smart glove was constructed. (Figure 3 a) shows the back side of the glove, on which the flex sensors are fixed. The pushbuttons and lithium battery are fixed on the inner part (Figure 3 b). Conclusions: In this project, we constructed a smart glove for supporting deaf people in communicating with normal people who don’t know Arabic sign language. The smart glove which is able to connect to Android mobile and make facilitates sending character. Whereas the android application is able to receive text message from smart glove and the smart glove the smart glove able to send Arabic character to the application. The smart glove is light and easy to use and no risk. At the end of the project we believe that the project is an effective and very useful for deaf people to communicate with other, and it is very useful for deaf and dump people if they are taught Arabic sign language where they can communicate with their families and people around them. Ultimately, with this project, we aim to develop it to support sending a full sentence instead of a single letter. Mainly the system should be extended to support languages more than Arabic, and the system can use several ways to communicate, if can use Wi-Fi connection, which enables a faster connection and better range from the base station or Global System for Mobile communication (GSM module) that is the most widespread and it’s a cellular technology used for transmitting mobile data services, the most obvious advantage of it is widespread use throughout the world.
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    Measurement of Arden Ratio for Diagnosing Hereditary Retinal Diseases Using EOG System
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-12-22) AL-Khalaylah, Mariam ; Qawasma, Ramzi
    Abstract: The project helps ophthalmologists to provide a correct diagnosis for hereditary retinal diseases that affect the eyes, which are transmitted between generations in a single-family. The project aims to build & implement an EOG system for recording EOG signals in order to diagnose the Best Vitelliform macular dystrophy (BEST Disease). The EOG system contains different stages of processing and conditioning circuits to obtain the required signal. The recorded signal in light and dark adaptation was transmitted to a computer using DAQ, for further processing using specially designed algorithms in LabVIEW software, for both light and dark adaptation, to calculate the average of the value of EOG signal in each minute recording is calculated and then the smoothed light to dark ratio curve is plotted. Background: “ISCEV Standard for Clinical Electro-oculography (EOG) 2006”. The clinical electrooculogram (EOG) is a test of the function of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in which the change in the electrical potential between the cornea and the ocular fundus is recorded during successive periods of dark and light adaptation. Objectives: • Design and implementation of EOG system for recording EOG signals. • Connect the designed system with LabVIEW software for signal processing. • Calculate the Arden Ratio by LabVIEW for diagnosing eye diseases. Methods: several stages of theoretical calculations, electrical design, and software application. Several stages of calculation are done in order to choose the appropriate value electrical components circuit. Then shows the connections between the project components of (electrical circuit, myDAQ, computer, labVIEW). In addition, the electrical design simulated using MULTISIM program. myDAQ hardware acts as the interface between a computer and the design. LabVIEW will be used for signal processing, plot the Light-Dark curve, calculate and display the Arden Ratio and diagnosing retinal disease. Results: Calculate the average of saccadic eye movement during one minute along 30 minutes, and then plot Arden curve. The Arden ratio is then calculated by dividing the light peak over the dark trough of the smoothed light to dark curve, when the size of the light peak is compared to the dark trough the relative size should be about 2:1 or greater in normal conditions. A light / dark ratio of less than about 1.5 is considered abnormal. Conclusions: - The project helps ophthalmologists to provide correct diagnosis for hereditary retinal diseases that affect the eyes, which is important for giving the best treatment for the patient. - The device also has light weight, so it can be used easily and everywhere. - This system combined between efficiency and efficiency, since it uses LabVIEW software
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    Land Cover Change & Environmental Analysis of Hebron District Using GIS & Remote Sensing
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2020-12-22) Dandees, Baraa ; Saghir, Rahaf ; Aljunidi, Yumna ; Aburajab, Nidal
    district is selected in this project in order to assess several environmental issues using remote sensing and GIS techniques, Hebron district is the largest governorate in the west bank it contains many religious, historical and archeological sites. The main objective of this project is to create an inclusive study for analyzing land-cover changes, and the environmental effect in Hebron district and certain areas within the district, this study expands from the year 1985 till 2019 using satellites imagery (Land Sat 7 ETM+, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI_TIRS, Sentinel). The study includes Land cover mapping, land surface temperature, particulate matter management, and certain indices calculated using Arc GIS and ENVI software to assess the environmental impact on the study area. Data is collected from satellite imagery for the years (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2019) using Landsat satellite, the evaluation of the Land Surface Temperature (LST), image classification and several indices including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Bare Soil Index (BSI), and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), and the particulate matter measurement through models and equations applied in Arc GIS software. Land cover results from 1985 till 2019 show that the built-up area has increased from 54 Km2 to 246 Km2, also the rock area decreased from 134 Km2 to 107 Km2, the area of agricultural land decreased from 79 Km2 to 17 Km2, also the area of barren land decreased from775 Km2 to 671 Km2. Whereas the indices show that Hebron District has a low percentage of vegetation, and a large percentage of bare soil, and high-stress water. Also, there have been a few changes in the land surface temperature spatially and temporally where the maximum temperature was in the year 2000 at 54 ͦ C and the minimum was in 1995 at 16 ͦ C. From an environmental perspective, Hebron is negatively affected by the increase of the built-up area and the decrease in agricultural land and bare land areas, so that it affects air quality, soil quality, plant growth, and flora and fauna diversity.