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dc.contributor.authorKanan, Amer
dc.contributor.authorQurie, Mohannad
dc.contributor.authorAwad, Loay
dc.contributor.authorQudaimat, Lamis
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-21T09:24:46Z
dc.date.available2020-07-21T09:24:46Z
dc.date.issued2019-11-27
dc.identifier.issn2365-6433
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.alquds.edu/handle/20.500.12213/5682
dc.description.abstractWater disinfection using processes such as chlorination is required to kill bacteria and harmful biological components. During chlorination, organic components in water react with chlorine, forming harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). These compounds are very harmful to humans, animals, and plants. Thus, the concentration of these substances in groundwater as well as the seasonal variation in this concentration are of immense interest to scientists. A headspace method was used to analyze trihalomethanes (THMs) using an Agilent 6890N GC/MS. Five-milliliter water samples were employed in this analysis. Separation was performed on a J&W-VRX column. A selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode that complied with US EPA method no. 501 was developed for the detection of four THM species. Quantification and method validation were performed using external standard calibration. The total trihalomethane formation potentials (TTHMFPs) in four groundwater wells in the summer and the winter were found to be below the maximum limits specified by environmental agencies. Seasonal variations were more pronounced for the formation of chloroform (CF), which was the dominant THM species formed. The fraction of the TTHMFP that was due to CF increased in the winter in groundwater samples from the Anabta (2), Anabta (3), and Al Rehya wells, whereas the fraction of the TTHMFP that was due to CF was almost the same in summer (43.2%) and in winter (40.3%) in the groundwater samples from the Al Fawar well. These findings are important for the appropriate regulation of THM levels and for achieving a better understanding of environmental public health and epidemiological issues concerning disinfection by-products in Palestine.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to thank the Netherlands Representative Office (NRO), which supported this work in part through the Palestinian-Dutch Academic Cooperation Program on Water (PADUCO). Al-Quds University Chemical and Biological Analytical Center is gratefully acknowledged for the sample analyses.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringeren_US
dc.subjectSeasonalen_US
dc.subjectSpatialen_US
dc.subjectGroundwater wellsen_US
dc.subjectTrihalomethanes (THMs)en_US
dc.subjectFormation potential (FP)en_US
dc.titleSeasonal and spatial variation in total trihalomethane formation potential in groundwater in Tulkarm and Hebron, Palestineen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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