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dc.contributor.authorFlanley, Catherine M.
dc.contributor.authorRamalho-Ortigao, Marcelo
dc.contributor.authorCoutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.
dc.contributor.authorMukbel, Rami
dc.contributor.authorHanafi, Hanafi A.
dc.contributor.authorEl-Hossary, Shabaan S.
dc.contributor.authorFawaz, Emad El-Din Y.
dc.contributor.authorHoel, David F.
dc.contributor.authorBray, Alexander W.
dc.contributor.authorStayback, Gwen
dc.contributor.authorShoue, Douglas A.
dc.contributor.authorKamhawi, Shaden
dc.contributor.authorKarakuş, Mehmet
dc.contributor.authorJaouadi, Kaouther
dc.contributor.authorYaghoobie-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza
dc.contributor.authorKrüger, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorAmro, Ahmad
dc.contributor.authorKenawy, Mohamed Amin
dc.contributor.authorDokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan
dc.contributor.authorWarburg, Alon
dc.contributor.authorHamarsheh, Omar
dc.contributor.authorMcDowell, Mary Ann
dc.date.accessioned2020-01-29T19:45:03Z
dc.date.available2020-01-29T19:45:03Z
dc.date.issued2018-03-27
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.alquds.edu/handle/20.500.12213/5057
dc.description.abstractBackground: Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are major vectors of Leishmania major and phlebovirus infection in North Africa and across the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent. Population genetics is a valuable tool in understanding the level of genetic variability present in vector populations, vector competence, and the development of novel control strategies. This study investigated the genetic differentiation between P. papatasi populations in Egypt and Jordan that inhabit distinct ecotopes and compared this structure to P. papatasi populations from a broader geographical range. Methods: A 461 base pair (bp) fragment from the mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was PCR amplified and sequenced from 116 individual female sand flies from Aswan and North Sinai, Egypt, as well as Swaimeh and Malka, Jordan. Haplotypes were identified and used to generate a median-joining network, FST values and isolation-bydistance were also evaluated. Additional sand fly individuals from Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Tunisia and Turkey were included as well as previously published haplotypes to provide a geographically broad genetic variation analysis. Results: Thirteen haplotypes displaying nine variant sites were identified from P. papatasi collected in Egypt and Jordan. No private haplotypes were identified from samples in North Sinai, Egypt, two were observed in Aswan, Egypt, four from Swaimeh, Jordan and two in Malka, Jordan. The Jordan populations clustered separately from the Egypt populations and produced more private haplotypes than those from Egypt. Pairwise FST values fall in the range 0.024–0.648. (Continued on next page) (Continued from previous page) Conclusion: The clustering patterns and pairwise FST values indicate a strong differentiation between Egyptian and Jordanian populations, although this population structure is not due to isolation-by-distance. Other factors, such as environmental influences and the genetic variability in the circulating Le. major parasites, could possibly contribute to this heterogeneity. The present study aligns with previous reports in that pockets of genetic differentiation exists between populations of this widely dispersed species but, overall, the species remains relatively homogeneous.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAcknowledgments We are grateful to the Egyptian Ministry of Health for their aid and in sand fly collections and the Multi National Force and Observers (MFO) military units for transportation in the Sinai Peninsula. Special gratitude goes to Ms Maria Badra from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three (NAMRU- 3), Cairo, Egypt, for her organizational skills and support of the work in Egypt. The study protocol was approved by the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three (NAMRU-3) Institutional Review Board IRB No. 193, DoD No, NAMRU3.2006.0011, in compliance with all applicable Federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects. Funding This project was supported by contract No. W911NF0410380 from the Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded to MAM. OH was supported by a grant from the Eck Institute for Global Health at the University of Notre Dame, a Fulbright Senior Scientist grant, and Zamallah Academic Development Program. CMF was supported by an Arthur J. Schmitt Leadership Fellowship in Science and Engineering and William and Linda Stavropoulos Fellowship in Science. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases or the National Institutes of Health of the US Department of Defense.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherBMCen_US
dc.subjectPhlebotomus papatasien_US
dc.subjectCytochrome ben_US
dc.subjectSand fliesen_US
dc.subjectmtDNAen_US
dc.subjectEgypten_US
dc.subjectJordanen_US
dc.subjectHaplotypesen_US
dc.subjectGenetic differentiationen_US
dc.subjectPopulation geneticsen_US
dc.titlePopulation genetics analysis of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies from Egypt and Jordan based on mitochondrial cytochrome b haplotypesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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