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    The Effects of Naturally-Occurring Interactions of Dopamine Vs. Serotonin Levels on Reinforcement Learning in Healthy Individuals
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2022-05-11) Haneen H. Sharabati; Mohammad M. Herzallah
    Background: The neuromodulators dopamine and serotonin play key roles in reinforcement learning. While dopamine modulates positive feedback processing, serotonin facilitates aversive learning and behavioral inhibition. The dopamine transporter (DAT), coded by the DAT1 gene, regulates synaptic dopamine levels in the brain is. DAT1 exhibits a naturally-occurring variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR) in its 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR). Similarly, the serotonin transporter (SERT) controls synaptic serotonin levels in the brain. SERT is coded by the SLC6A4 gene that has a polyadenylation polymorphism influencing the balance of two polyadenylation forms of SERT in the brain (STPP).
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    Predicting Serotonin Transporter Haplotypes Based on Reinforcement Learning
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2022-05-11) Ru'a Rimawi; Anfal Abu Hilal; Mohmmad M. Herzallah
    Background: Serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in risk assessment, processing of negative feedback, and encoding value and time interaction. In humans, central serotonin signals are usually inferred from naturally-occurring polymorphisms in genes that encode key proteins for the synaptic reuptake of serotonin, namely the serotonin transporter (SERT). The SERT gene has two well-studied functional polymorphisms: (1) the 5-HT transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR; long allele (L) = low serotonin, short allele = high serotonin), and (2) the serotonin transporter polyadenylation polymorphism (STPP; C allele = high, A allele = low serotonin).
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    Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677t Gene Polymorphism and the Association with Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Palestinian Patients
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2022-05-11) Asil Husam Yagmour; Mosa Abu Sabha; Muawiyah Elqadi; Khaled Eweidat; Mosa Abu Sabha; Asil Yagmour; Anas Sabarneh; Abedalmajeed Nasereddin; Suheir Ereqat
    Background: Dyslipidemia in diabetes is common and characterized by hypertriglyceridemia with decreased levels of high‐density lipoprotein. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in Palestinian T2DM patients and to investigate the association between this polymorphism and lipid profile in diabetic patients with and without dyslipidemia.
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    Dopamine Genetic Scores Modulate Positive Reinforcement Learning in Healthy Undergraduates
    (Al-Quds University, Deanship of Scientific Research, 2022-05-11) Yasmin Arda; Anfal A. Abu Hilal; Mohammad M. Herzallah
    Background: Dopamine has been implicated in modulating reinforcement learning from positive and negative feedback. Enhanced dopamine levels are linked to better learning from positive feedback, whereas decreased dopamine mediates learning from negative feedback. Naturally-occurring variations in dopamine genes contribute to individual differences in reinforcement learning. Dopamine exerts its actions via proteins located pre- (D2 receptors), within- (transporter), and post-synaptically (D1 and D2 receptors) to regulate dopaminergic function.