حدود الاتحاد الأوروبي الأبعاد الداخلية والخارجية (1992- 2014)
The Borders of the European Union (EU): Internal and International Dimension (1992- 2014)
وعد حسن ديب الفرارجه
waad hassan deeb alfararjah
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The Borders of the European Union (EU): Internal and International Dimension (1992- 2014) By: Waad Hassan Deeb Alfararjah Supervised by Prof. Aziz Haider The question of the unity and the borders are considered one of the greatest issues that provoke a debate inside and outside the European Union (EU), especially on the opportunities for new accession. This dissertation seeks to investigate on the intersection between two main concepts, firstly the ideas affecting the changes of the EU borders in regards to the ‘Schengen’ concept and plan, in which resulted in borders abolishment, consolidation and reintegration. Secondly, to investigate on the role of the EU policies to achieve a union among the EU member states, highlighting on the position held by some experts towards Turkey as a bridge to the Middle East. This dissertation aims to analyze, compare and underline the borders of Europe, the geographic borders that had been dividing Europe, and the role of the EU in unifying Europe both in drawing new borders, and "eliminating" the geographic borders will be scrutinized. The difference between the internal and external borders of the EU will be discussed to reveal the impact of borders abolishment designed by the Schengen stipulation, as well as to elaborate the phrase migration and how it affects the EU external borders. Further, the relationship between the EU and the new candidate countries will be highlighted, while attention is drawn to the limitations of accepting new members like Turkey. Moreover, this study presumes that the more the EU is expanded, the harder it will be to unify it. For widening, or expanding the borders, implies integrating new countries in the EU, which becomes more diversified as a result, and thus more difficult to integrate new member countries to the EU. Further, the study presumes that deepening the integration entails an increase in the criteria of the EU institutions (i.e. the body of European law) which makes it more difficult for countries to meet the set criteria and makes it harder to unify. Overall, a historical, descriptive and analytical approach has been applied on the issue of the EU borders. The study has found that the process of unifying Europe has been a difficult process, particularly due to key differences among various state members, where each state has its own agenda, political and economic views and culture. Although, the EU has achieved a lot, yet there are many restrictions and obstacles that procrastinate further integration. First, the introduction of the single passport where people are able to move freely all over Europe is restricted, for example, the family, culture, language and curriculum. It is true that the EU eliminate the internal borders, but there are still many barriers that need to be eliminated. Second, the EU opens its external border in front of the immigrants under the condition that they fulfill the criteria of migration. However, there are many obstacles that may delay further policies and increase the EU fear of accepting immigrants, for instance, the increase of the unemployment rate, the existence of the extremist political ideologies which were born and emerged in the Middle East, such as ISIS that is threatening the EU stability and unity. Third, the discussion of new candidate countries to the EU is limited; where and which there are several limitations of accepting new members such as, Turkey. This study reveals that the candidate country needs to fulfill all the requirements and prerequisites determined to join the EU by the union. Yet, however, the accession is selective, where the EU in some cases goes beyond the laws and rules of accession for a political reason, as it is the case with the ex-communist countries that joined the Union though they did not fulfill the Copenhagen criteria. The EU might also open its arms to integrate with Ukraine even though Ukraine is still far from fulfilling the standards of accession.
- Regional Studies